reading 504 (42 Cards)
 by [email protected]
  Front cards Back cards
1 lesson 5 ---Shape Up at Shaker-- Each summer at the Shaker Work Group, a special school in rural Pittsfield, Massachusetts, where teenagers learn by working, it has been a tradition to have the teenagers take on the burden of setting their own rules and living by them. Although there are some adults on the campus, teenagers are a majority. One summer the group assembled to explore the topic of lights-out time. There was little debate until 10:30 P.M. was suggested. Why? Everyone at the Shaker Work Group works a minimum* of several hours each morning on one project and several hours each afternoon on another. Since everyone has to get up early, no one wanted to stay up later at night anyway. Few teenagers at the Shaker Work Group try to evade the rules. When one does, the entire group meets to probe the reasons for the "villain's"* actions. Their aim is to reform the rule breaker. However, at Shaker Village, the theory* is that teenagers who are busy working will have no time to break rules.
2 lesson 6 --The Health of Your Car-- The newest approach to automobile repair is the clinic, a place where car doctors go over an automobile in an attempt to detect defects. Since the clinic does no repairs, its employees do not neglect the truth. So many automobile owners feel that mechanics deceive them that the clinics, even though they undoubtedly charge high fees, are quite popular. The experts do a thorough job for each client. They explore* every part of the engine, body, and brakes; they do all kinds of tests with expensive* machines. Best of all, the comprehensive examination takes only about half an hour. With the clinic's report in your hand no mechanic will be able to defraud you by telling you that you need major repairs when only a small repair is necessary.
3 lesson 7 lnhe Frozen Future Doctors are always devising* new cures for diseases that kill people. But suppose you are dying from an incurable illness now. If only you could postpone death until a cure was found! Now some people are trying to do just that. One young man consented to having his body frozen and placed in a massive capsule in order to preserve it until doctors find a cure for his disease. Some peopie have denounced this unique experiment with a torrent of angry words. They resent human attempts to molest the natural order of life and death. There is also a gloomy fear that the world is already overcrowded and that people have to die to make room for those who are about to be born. If the experiment works, unforeseen problems undoubtedly* will arise.
4 lesson 8 The Guitar It is impossible to exaggerate the popularity* of the guitar. One out of every four amateur musicians in the United States plays the guitar. Even a mediocre player can produce a variety of music with this unique* instrument. Trying to find valid reasons for the guitar's ability to survive through the years isn't hard. One weird theory* by a prominent mus1c1an states that guitarists find security hiding behind the bulky instrument. But most people are reluctant to accept this idea because there are more obvious reasons for playing a guitar. It can be carried anywhere, it is inexpensive* to buy, and only a few lessons are required to learn to play it well.
5 lesson1 My brother, the Gentleman The story of Sir Walter Raleigh who spread his cloak on the ground to keep Queen Elizabeth from the hardship of crossing a muddy puddle can qualify that nobleman for an award as a man of tact and good breeding. My brother Kenny, a bachelor with a keen interest in history, was impressed by that anecdote and thought he might demonstrate his excellent upbringing in a parallel situation.
6 lesson10 Bet on the Blond Can women excel as jockeys in big-time horse racing? Years ago the feminine touch was kept out of racing, but now at tracks all over the country women mount horses and compete with men, many of whom dread the whole idea. Their masculine image, they feel, may be threatened.* Also, some offer the weak argument that females are a menace on the track. But, as we all know, we should resist* the tendency to underestimate the power of women. A few female jockeys have been victorious in numerous races, and this is probably what has put the male jockeys in a rage.* It would be wise if the men were more flexible in their attitudes toward women athletes.
7 lesson11 The Famous Monster of the lake There seems to be more and more evidence that the enormous* monster in Loch Ness, a solitary lake in Scotland, is more than a vision. Each year there are numerous* glimpses of the monster by visitors and neighborhood people; also recent films, not easy to ignore,* are making even scientists hesitate. The story of frequent visits by a monster once seemed absurd to them, but now they are not so sure. Yet the conflict is far from over. Those who believe the monster exists are still in the minority, and they are constantly competing* for more information to prove that the Loch Ness monster is not a fiction. Even now they are trying to get more and clearer moving pictures of what has become the famous inhabitant* of the lake. Perhaps the question of whether the monster exists or not will be answered in this coming decade.
8 lesson12 The Electric Auto Is on Its Way Ignite gasoline and you have noise and smoke; turn on an electric motor and you abolish two headaches that are dreaded* by urban populations. Automobile manufacturers are frank about the way their motors pollute the air, and that is why there are frequent* hints that the big companies will soon reveal a practical electric car. So far, lack* of knowledge of storing electricity in the car prohibits wide production of electric autos, but recently* Congress called urgently for adequate research into the battery or fuel cell problem. Electric autos would be inexpensive* to run and would decrease air pollution.* It might be weird,* however, to live in the quiet surroundings of a city where autos that used to be noisily audible would be whisper-quiet.
9 lesson13 Flying Saucers Again Whenever journalists face a news famine they revive the undeniably* interesting question: How can we explain UFOs-unidentified flying objects? The story usually commences with a description of the object by some observant night watchman who doesn't hesitate* to identify the object as having migrated from outer space. The vessel, he persists, appeared over the hazy lake at about 30 feet. A greenish gleam prohibited* him from seeing its exact shape, he admits. Newspaper editors love these stories because they keep the population* interested in knowledge about UFOs and keep them buying newspapers.
10 lesson14 Roller Derby The most unruly game known to man or woman is the Roller Derby. Revived* every so often on television, it has no rival for violent, brutal action. The game commences* with two teams on roller skates circling a banked, oval track. Then one or two skaters try to break out of the pack and "lap" the opponents. When the skater leaves the pack,the brawl begins. No sport can duplicate the vicious shrieking,* pushing, elbowing, and fighting, all at high speed while the skaters are whirling around the track. And women are just as much of a menace* as the men. Often considered the underdog, the female skater can thrust a pointed fingernail into the face of a bewildered enemy.
11 lesson15 john Dewey High School; Brooklyn, New York The high school of the future may be New York City's John Dewey High School. Located in Brooklyn, this unique* school offers an expanded, altered course of study for mature students. The sacred 40 minute period has been abolished* and replaced with 20 minute units, so that some classes are 20, 40, 60 or even 80 minutes long. Courses have been revised into seven-week units. In honor study halls, students pledge themselves to quiet study. Generally, the teachers' attitude toward students is casual. Pupils may utilize* the cafeteria any time they have no class. Pupils pursue courses they choose themselves. So far the positive reaction is unanimous; everyone senses that the fortunate students at John Dewey High School are pioneers in the thrust* to find new ways of teaching and learning. We salute this innovative school.
12 lesson16 A Valuable Discovery The laser is a marvelous device that sends out a slender, concentrated beam of light, a light that surpasses the light at the sun's surface. So vast is the laser beam's power that it has without a doubt the capacity to vaporize* any substance located anywhere on earth. The laser can penetrate steel, pierce a diamond, or make an accurate die for wire so thin that it can be seen only with a microscope.Grateful eye surgeons report that they have used laser beams to repair the retinas in some fortunate* patients by creating tiny scars that joined the retina to the eyeball. Pioneering* medical men are making cautious exploration* into cancer cures with the laser, confident that they will alter* the course of this brutal* disease.
13 lesson17 A Cup of Coffee? The drink with the most appeal for Americans is still coffee, but coffee addicts had better be wary of the instant forms. Greedy for customers and confident* they won't lose them, companies will put their product in any instant form-liquid, powder, chips-and the coffee drinker, aware of his misfortune, finds it hard to avoid some of the more wretched instant products. The harsh fact is that an enormous* quantity of instant coffee is being sold, no doubt,* to nourish the popular demand for convenience. A keg of real coffee may become a museum piece as more and more people opt for instant coffee.
14 lesson18 The Challenge* of the Small Car The auto makers in Detroit barely survived* the tragedy of 1956. That was the year the consumer became aware* of the Volkswagen, and the auto market was forever altered.* Once Americans got a glance at this low-priced, nimble, small car that one could manipulate so easily, they frequently* refused those horrid Detroit monsters with eight cylinders and ten miles to each gallon of gasoline. Many pedestrians, previously uninterested in owning a car, began to purchase small foreign cars.Conservative as well as reckless drivers found the price within their budget and became customers. Volkswagen owners would rave about their economical cars, telling everyone how little gas they used and how infrequently* they needed to be lubricated. Volkswagen, once one of the most popular* small cars sold in America, has now fallen behind the autos of the ingenious Japanese manufacturers.
15 lesson19 Protecting Our Health Pick an apple, a tomato, a peach-no worms in the harvest. We are familiar with the abundant use of pesticides by farmers, but today's chemists are becoming uneasy. They calculate that there are 45,000 different pesticides, and all of them can be absorbed by the fruit on which they are sprayed. The chemists estimate that every morsel we eat in the future may contain a deadly quota of pesticide. The tragedy* will come slowly but the threat is real. These government chemists do not suggest that we ban pesticides. They are cautious* and do not easily panic. What is needed, they say, are appropriate, budgeted* doses that will not pollute* our food.
16 lesson2 Terror in the Cemetery I like to bet on anything that is exciting, so when my friends tried to tempt me with an offer, I took it. The idea was for me to spend a frigid December night in a cemetery, all alone. in order to win twenty dollars. Little did I realize that they would use dirty tricks to try to frighten me to abandon the cemetery and, therefore, lose my wager . My plan was to recline in front of a large grave, covered by a warm blanket, with a flashlight to help me cut through the dismal darkness. After midnight, I heard a wild shriek. I thought I saw the grave open and a corpse rise out of it. Although I was somewhat numb with fear. I tried to keep my senses. Using good judgment, I knew that no peril could come to me from that sinister figure. When I did not run in terror, my friends, who had decided to conceal themselves behind the nearby tombstones, came out and we all had a good laugh Those spirits that may inhabit a cemetery must have had a good laugh, too.
17 lesson20 A Home Where the Buffalo Roam Even today in South Dakota a cowboy emerges from behind a jagged rock where he has lingered in ambush waiting for the crafty buffalo to appear. Although not wild-they are raised on vast* ranches-the gallant,* defiant bison need to be hunted with the same vigor cowboys showed a century* ago. For a while, Americans thought the buffalo would perish from the earth; fortunately* the buffalo is far from being such a fragile animal. Now more or less captive, the buffalo, an estimated* 10,000, are raised for profit by ranchers who prosper from the sale of buffalo meat. When did you devour your last morsel* of tasty buffalo burger?
18 lesson21 Safety in the Air The most persistent plea of weary pilots has always been for a machine that would warn them that they were about to collide with an oncoming airplane. Studies of landing patterns confirm that the number of collisions is increasing each year, and pilots verify hundreds of reports of near misses. Recently a system that would electronically anticipate oncoming airplanes was devised, and the pilot's dilemma to dive or to climb, to detour to left or right, may be solved. The system has merit, though, only if every plane is equipped to transmit and receive a signal to and from an oncoming plane. But most aviation experts feel that only a system that watches every airplane in the sky will relieve a problem that tends to baffle everyone who attempts to find a solution.
19 lesson22 A New Way to Treat Prisoners The warden of a prison today will readily acknowledge the new trend in prison reform. In an attempt to provide a different brand of justice for society's delinquents, officials now reject the idea that prison should completely deprive the convict of freedom. Thus, in some prisons inmates are allowed to leave the prison grounds to visit their spouses or to pursue their vocation. Even the more unstable convict who may have committed homicide is not penalized as harshly as before. The hope is that if persons emerge from prison less defiant than they do now, society will be the beneficiary.
20 lesson23 Handling Poisonous Snakes "How do the Indian snake charmers handle those live poisonous reptiles without being poisoned? Visitors to the Hopi Indians rarely leave the reservation without asking. Because Indians forbid any white person from taking part in such a ceremony, scientists could come to one logical answer: before the Indians exhibit the snakes, they proceed to remove the fangs. Yet some scientists verify the fact that all the snakes have fangs. They have a different theory. The Indians take an important precaution: they extract most of the poison prior to the snake dance. Now the Indian can embrace the snake without being poisoned. He will appear valiant because he knows that the snake has only a partial supply of its deadly poison."
21 lesson24 Punishment for Drug Abuse A recent attempt by New Jersey's attorney general to lessen the penalties for use of marijuana has caused fierce arguments around the country. Those who detest the drug users sneer and scowl at the light treatment of offenders. They reject the attorney general's recommendation as lacking a morsel of sense, claiming it would only encourage more drug abuse. They consider the drug addict much like vermin that must be stamped out. Such citizens continually wail for stiffer penalties. Those in favor of a milder approach to the drug problem point to the poor results achieved by prison terms. They feel addicts should be given medical help. Also, in enforcing harsh drug laws, police tend to be viewed as a symbol of unwelcome authority. The problem demands a solution. We cannot remain neutral or unconcerned, nor can we afford to muddle through with ineffective measures, for this is not a trifling matter.
22 lesson25 love and Marriage The famous architect Melville Fenton grew tired of matrimony and devised a scheme to free himself of his spouse. He told her he had been engaged by an American company to design its new office building in Paris. Packing his baggage, he left his home and proceeded to cut all his ties with his former life. He changed his name, secured a new job, and quickly forgot his faithful wife. Not having any responsibilities, he began to squander his money and energy. He married another woman, believing he was safe from the law. But his first wife had grown suspicious and resentful. She learned from his employer that he had not gone abroad, that in fact he had left the firm altogether. With a little detective work, she soon discovered her husband's whereabouts. He had become a fugitive from justice and one calamity after another overtook him. He lost his job, became a pauper and was no longer the envy of his acquaintances. Then his second wife grew ill and died. After the collapse of his plans, there was only one logical step for Melville to take. He embraced his wife and asked for her forgiveness. Much to his relief, she decided not to prosecute him for bigamy.
23 lesson26 Some Tall Tales "Do you think it is possible to defeat an opponent so fierce that a glance at her turns one to stone? This was the fate of anyone who looked upon the Medusa, a dreaded monster whose hair was made of hissing serpents. The brave Perseus undertook to fight the Medusa, but he was compelled to do battle in a most awkward manner. To help Perseus in his venture, the goddess Minerva had lent him her bright shield, and the god Mercury had given him winged shoes. Cautiously he approached the awesome monster. Using the image of the Medusa in his shield as a guide, he succeeded in cutting off her head and fixing it to the center of Minerva's shield. Perseus then flew to the realm of King Atlas whose chief pride was his garden filled with golden fruit. Thirsty and near collapse, he pleaded with the king for water to quench his thirst and for a place to rest. But Atlas feared that he would be betrayed into losing his golden apples. He uttered just one word, ""Begone!"" Perseus, finding that he could not pacify Atlas, responded by beckoning him to look upon Medusa's head. Atlas was changed immediately into stone. His head and hair became forests, his body increased in bulk and became cliffs, and the gods ruled that the heaven with all its stars should rest upon his shoulders. Can there be a worse calamity than that which befell Atlas?"
24 lesson27 Problems We Face Despite wars, disease, and natural disasters, our world is experiencing a population explosion (boom) that threatens to change or disrupt life as we have known it. Vast numbers of people must be fed and housed, and in the process a whole rash of problems has descended upon the human race. First has been the pollution of the air and the contamination of the water supply. Second has been the rapid exhaustion of fuels, minerals, and other natural resources. The response to this situation has ranged from utter disbelief to exaggerated concern. Since scientists themselves disagree on the severity of the problem, our feeble knowledge is surely unable to suggest the correct course of action. But we cannot stand still because there is too much at stake. We are, therefore, compelled to unite in our efforts to insure that human life on this planet does not cease. We must learn to be thrifty, even miserly, with the gifts of nature that we have formerly taken for granted. If our past reveals a reckless squandering of our natural possessions, we must now find an intelligent guide to their use so that we may remain monarchs of a world that has peace and plenty.
25 lesson28 What Did You Have for Breakfast? A parents' organization to protect children's health appealed to a Senate committee to outlaw television commercials that promote the purchase of sugary products. Too much advertising urges the young child to eat caramels, chocolate, cookies, and pastries. This results in poor eating habits and leaves youngsters undernourished and subject to rapid tooth decay and other diseases. To illustrate the extent of the problem, a recent survey of one typical day of CBS's Channel 7 in Boston between 7 A.M. and 2 P.M. disclosed 67 commercials for sweet-tasting products. Several witnesses said that many children's cereals contained more than 50 percent sugar, that children often forced their parents to buy the cereals, and that excessive use of sugar from cereals, soft drinks and snack foods is a national disaster. Dr. Jean Mayer, professor of nutrition at Harvard University, recommended censoring the culprits in advertising for juvenile viewers. Recognizing the powerful opponents in the food industry who will resist control, Dr. Mayer said that no feeble efforts will do. "Sugar-coated nothings," he added, "must cease to be the standard diet of the American child." Other witnesses pointed out that many cereal boxes, as bait for the children, used offers of dolls, balloons, airplane or car models, magic kits, monster cutouts and similar trifles, but the cereal inside the box, they insisted, had no more food value than the container it came in.
26 lesson29 Camp Safety For years a furniture salesman from Connecticut, Mitch Kurman, has toiled ceaselessly for the passage of a youth summer camp safety bill. Why? Because his son David was drowned when his canoe overturned in the raging waters of the Penobscot River. The camp counselors leading the trip were inexperienced, had blundered into dangerous waters, and had no life jackets for the canoers. Mr. Kurman was naturally dazed by the tragedy. But rather than merely mourn his loss and wait for the painful memory to subside, he began a campaign that took him on hundreds of journeys to speak to governors, senators, and congressmen. He had learned that 250,000 children are injured or maimed annually in camp accidents. It was hard for him to comprehend why we have laws that outlaw mistreatment of alligators, coyotes, birds and bobcats, but we have no law to prevent disasters to children in summer camps. Wherever he went, Mr. Kurman was commended for his efforts, but he received only trifling support from the lawmakers. One bill, requiring people to put on life preservers when they took to the water, died in the final reading. Another such bill exempted private ponds and lakes, exactly the waters where most summer camps are located. Even a bill calling for a survey of camp safety conditions was at first defeated. Mr. Kurman's struggle so far has been in vain, but he continues his battle to avoid a repetition of the accident that took his son's life.
27 lesson3 An Unusual Strike The baseball strike of 1994-95, which kept the public from seeing the annual World series, was not atypical labor dispute in which low-paid workers try to persuade their employers to grant a raise above their minimum wage. On the contrary, players who earned millions of dollars yearly, who were visible on TV commercials, drove expensive autos, and dined with presidents, withheld their essential skills until the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of our government were forced to devise solutions to the quarrel. The team owners, a blend of lawyers, manufacturers, corporate executives, etc. felt that something had to be done about the huge salaries that the players were demanding. Since the talent beyond the major leagues was scarce they had to start spring training in 1995 with wholesale invitation to replacement players. The regular athletes returned in late April but there was a feeling that the strike could happen again.
28 lesson30 Bible Zoo One of the most popular tales of the Bible depicts the great flood that destroyed every mortal except Noah and his family and the animals on his ark. Should there be a repetition of that disaster, there is one place where all the biblical animals are already gathered. The man to be commended for this novel collection is Professor Aharon Shulov, a zoologist at Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel. Professor Shulov appointed himself a committee of one to search out the 130 creatures mentioned in the Old Testament. Among the occupants of this zoo are crocodiles, camels, apes, peacocks, deer, foxes, and sheep, some of whom had to be imported from other lands. They are settled in suitable quarters on a twenty-five acre site in Jerusalem. Visitors to the zoo not only get to view and feed the animals, but they are also treated to quotes from Bible verses that encourage the study of the Good Book and teach morality amidst the waddling of the ducks and the wailing of the wolves. Not surprisingly, the children have the final word at a special corner of the zoo, called the Garden of Eden, where animal cubs roam freely, attracting the attention of hundreds of youngsters who visit daily.
29 lesson31 Record Holders The Guinness Book of World Records is full of fascinating facts. For example, the champion commuter is Bruno Leuthardt of Germany, who traveled 370 miles each day for ten years to his teaching job and was late only once because of a flood. The record for being buried alive is held by Emma Smith of Ravenshead, England. She was confined in a coffin for 100 days. What a way to spend the idle hours! Peter Clark of London collected 1276 autographed pictures of famous men and women. Obviously not all were his idols, but he did set a record. What drives people to these unusual practices? Some are simply done in jest, some for patriotic reasons. Certainly no one would dispute the valor of the "record-makers," even if the records themselves may be no more lasting than a popular song. While one need not be a lunatic, he must have a vein of recklessness to participate in such activities as bungee-jumping, high diving, or parachute jumping. If you are tired of leading a dull, uneventful life, remember the mortais whose fertile imaginations have found novel ways to add excitement to their lives.
30 lesson32 How Our Language Grows Many popular expressions in our language have interesting backgrounds. When we refer to a person's weak spot as his Achilles heel) we are recalling the story of the mighty Greek hero of the Trojan War, Achilles, a warrior of unusual strength and valor. The mother of Achilles, in whose veins flowed the blood of the gods, was warned at his birth that her son would die in battle. In great distress, she sought to save her son. In order to diminish his chances of being hurt and to give him maximum protection in combat, she dipped the infant in the river Styx. The magic waters touched every part of the child's body except the heel that she held in her hand. Thus it happened many years later that as Achilles started to flee from an attack, a poisoned arrow struck him in the heel, the only spot where he was vulnerable. Today, the meaning of Achilles heel is not confined to a weak spot in the body but it also signifies a weakness in the character of an individual, or in the defenses of a nation, or in the structure of a system. American politics, rather than mythology, provides the explanation for the word bunk. This word came into the language in 1820 when Felix Walker, the representative from Buncombe County, North Carolina, formed the habit of making long, unnecessary speeches in Congress. When his colleagues asked him why he was tormenting them so, he apologized by saying it was his patriotic duty to put those speeches in the record out of loyalty to his supporters at home. The word "Buncombe" was shortened to "bunk" and came to mean any thought that has little or no worth.
31 lesson33 Don't look over My Shoulder! The kibitzer is a person who volunteers useless information, especially in card games, causing the players to be prejudiced against him. The name comes from a Yiddish word which originally referred to a certain bird whose shrill cry scared the animals away upon the approach of the hunters. Though the kibitzer may think he is being jolly or witty, his advice often hinders more than it helps. We may scowl at him or lecture him for his abuse of our friendship, but he still continues to mumble his unwelcome remarks. The serious player may even wish he could make the kibitzer mute by sticking a wad of cotton in his mouth. The kibitzer, however, may not realize that he is causing torment or distress to his colleagues. Thus we may have to resign ourselves to his annoying habit if we wish to retain him as a friend.
32 lesson34 A Course for Parents A course entitled "The Responsibilities of Parenthood" sounds as if it should be offered to students who are immediate candidates for parenthood. Not according to Dr. Lee Salk, who feels that teaching children about parenthood should precede the adolescent years. Dr. Salk, of the New York Hospital, teaches a volunteer coeducational class of junior high school youngsters what it means to be a parent. He does not lecture or present radical views. Rather, he conducts spontaneous discussions by encouraging students to imagine that they are parents and asking them such questions as "What would you do if you found your child smoking?" or "How would you prepare your child for the first day of school?" The lessons skim over such topics as the need to vaccinate children against diseases or to teach them not to be untidy or to use utensils properly. The class is more concerned with preparing students emotionally to become better parents some day and with making children sensitive to the responsibilities of parenthood. The class members often express temperate and mature views. One girl said she would not approve of having a nurse bring up her child. Another felt that money earned through baby-sitting or other jobs should be shared with parents. When asked how his students rate, Dr. Salk retained a hopeful outlook. "They are ready for this information," he declared. "I think they'll be honest parents."
33 lesson35 Summer Travel If you are tired of making vague excuses for another dull summer at home, here is a thought to elevate your spirits. You do not need anything so radical as winning a lottery to finance a trip to Europe. A student identity card that can be obtained for a few dollars from the Council on International Educational Exchange entitles you to discount tickets on certain charter flights to London and Paris, as well as reduced admission to many museums, cinemas, and musical events. Once in Europe, you can stretch your budget by staying at approved youth hostels for about ten dollars a night. So don't discard your hopes of becoming an international traveler. Soon you can be soaring into the skies or skimming over the waves to new adventures that you will subsequently relate to your stationary friends.
34 lesson36 A Helping Hand Youth workers Bill Nash and Jim Boyle are house hunters, not so much for a house as for a concerned family willing to house and feed troubled youngsters temporarily. They try to give prompt attention to those who cannot or will not live at home. For some, leaving home may have been the result of a hasty decision, based on a scorching remark and the subsequent tempest within the family. The cooling-off period away from the family is a time to soothe feelings. With sympathetic outsiders, youngsters have a chance to redeem them-selves. The hope, of course, is that they will learn to relate to adults again and quickly resume a normal life of harmony with their own families. Some people refrain from offering their homes, expressing vague fears of the harmful effects on their own children. But this has not been the case, even when the problem of the "visitor" was the illegal use of narcotics. One parent remarked, "With us it worked the other way. The horror of drugs became real to my own son. We got a lot more than we gave."
35 lesson37 Listen to Smokey the Bear At one time the United States was heir to great riches, for more than half of our country was covered with forests. Now the majestic woodlands have dwindled to the point where we have no surplus of trees. Of course, only a traitor to the beauties of nature would deliberately set a forest fire, but careless citizens are the vandals who are responsible for much of the destruction. In time of drought especially, scorching fires started by careless smokers can reduce a beautiful forest to acres of blackened stumps. Theodore Roosevelt understood that we cannot abide the continual loss of our precious forests but we must learn to live in harmony with nature. In 1905 he appointed Gifford Pinchot to head the Forest Service which promptly began to unify efforts in caring for our national forests. The modern forest rangers, from the "lookouts" stationed on mountain summits to the "smokejumpers" who parachute from airplanes to fight fires, ask us to heed the advice of Smokey the Bear, who has become their symbol. Smokey says, "Only you can prevent forest fires."
36 lesson38 Gulliver's Travels Jonathan Swift tried to show the smallness of people by writing the biography of Dr. Lemuel Gulliver. In one of his strangest adventures, Gulliver was shipwrecked. Drenched and weary, he fell asleep on the shore. In the morning, he found himself tied to pegs in the ground, and swarming over him were hundreds of little people six inches high. After a time he was allowed to stand, though he began to wobble from being bound so long. He was then marched through the streets, naturally causing a tumult wherever he went. Even the palace was not big enough for him to enter, nor could he kneel before the king and queen. But he did show his respect for them in another way. The king was dejected because he feared an invasion of Lilli put by Blefuscu, the enemy across the ocean. The reason for the war between the two tiny peoples would seem small and foolish to us. The rebels of Blefuscu were originally Lilliputians who would not abide by the royal decision to crack their eggs on the small end instead of on the larger end. Gulliver, obedient to the king's command, waded out into the water when the tide receded, and sticking a little iron hook into each of fifty warships, he pulled the entire enemy fleet to Lilliput. Gulliver later escaped from Lilliput when he realized the tiny king was really a tyrant with no charity in his heart. Oddly enough, the verdict of generations of readers has taken no heed of the author's intention in Gulliver)s Travels. Instead, while Lilliputians are still the symbol of small, narrow-minded people, Swift's savage attack upon humankind has become one of the best-loved children's classics.
37 lesson39 Roast Beef on Rye A little digging will unearth the roots of our language and habits. For instance, our word "sandwich" is derived from the Earl of Sandwich, who lived in the time of George Ill. This gentleman would not depart from the gambling table for hours on end. If his play happened to coincide with dinner, he would cancel his regular meal and order a slice of meat to be served to him between two pieces of bread. The biography of the Earl claims that we are his debtors for his discovery of the sandwich. Charles Dickens later used the phrase "sandwich man" to describe someone who walks about with a clearly legible message on placards hung on his chest and back. An example of a superstition is the fear of walking under a ladder. This must have been a contagious fear for it seems to have started with the ancient belief that spirits lived in trees or wood. "Knocking on wood" was a way of calling up the friendly spirit to protect one from harm. Today a member of the clergy might sneer at this custom, expecting that by this time such superstitions would have receded into the past with witches and ghosts. Another expression, "giving someone the cold shoulder," has been traced to the Middle Ages, when a host would serve his guests a cold shoulder of mutton or beef instead of the customary hot food. This was a transparent attempt to show the guest he was no longer welcome. The host had thus found a more charitable yet effective way of expressing his feelings without using a scalding remark.
38 lesson4 A Fan in the Air Fog, tiny droplets of water vapor, is the villain of the airports. In an effort to eliminate dense fog from airports, weathermen utilize giant fan, nylon strings, and chemicals dropped from planes or shot upwards from strange machines on the ground. Nothing works as well, though, as a new weapon in the fight against fog: the helicopter. Researchers believe that if warm dry above the fog could somehow be driven down into the humid blanket of fog, the droplets would evaporate. thus clearing the air. In a recent experiment to test their theory the researchers had a helicopter descend into the fog above barely visible Smith Mountain Airport near Roanoke, Virginia. The blades of the helicopter caused the air to circulate downwards and an enormous hole in the clouds opened above the airport. Weathermen predict that with larger, more expensive helicopters they will be able to make the thickest fog vanish.
39 lesson40 Weight-watchers Judging from the popularity of books on dieting, one would think an epidemic of obesity is sweeping the nation. Although being fat is not contagious, it is a condition not to be sneered at since it affects one-fourth of all Americans. Without magnifying the problem, professionals concerned with the nation's health, from chiropractors to medical specialists, agree that being overweight is a major obstacle to good health. They point out that people will readily see the need to ventilate their homes for fresh air to get rid of vermin that may cause disease, but they jeopardize their health by eating the wrong foods or the wrong amount of foods. Coincidentally, a recent survey of employment agencies showed that obesity has a negative effect on a person's chances of landing a job. While the job-seeker is asking about salary and pensions, the employer is thinking about the worker's healthand weight is a vital consideration when it comes to injuries, disease, and absenteeism. Some municipal jobs, in fact, do require an applicant to be within normal weight range, and one New York bank insists on an oral understanding that applicants will take off excess weight. As the Wall Street journal put it, "Fat people often find slim pickings in the job market."
40 lesson41 Where Do We Go from Here? When we grow too complacent with ourselves, along come writers who, wasp-like, sting us with reminders of the many problems we face-from rehabilitating former prisoners on parole to feeding the world's hungry population. Those authors do not see civilization rising almost vertically to greater and greater heights. Though a multitude of problems beset America, they nominate the large urban centers as potentially the most dangerous and requiring the most immediate attention. They see the cities as the morgues of dead hopes and lost ideals. We are preoccupied with trifles like the upholstery in our homes or personal matters like pension and benefits, but now we are called upon to contribute to our community on every vital level-moral, political, economic. We are not being urged to give up our beloved possessions, but our civilization can be saved only if we overcome the epidemic of indifference. We must begin to live with a new openness to others and a determination to become the best of which we are capable.
41 lesson42 A Time for Decision Carl Brown walked wearily from the bus stop, his thoughts preoccupied with the day's events. He had become accustomed to receiving the blame for his colleagues' mistakes. He could remain complacent when less deserving workers were promoted ahead of him. He could even maintain an air of indifference when the young man he had trained now snubbed him. What he could not endure was the ridicule of his fellow employees. His wrath flamed at the thought that his secret had been exposed. The legend of his honesty had died. Carl Brown pondered his next move. Should he resign or take even more drastic measures? His steps led past the wharf where the ships were unloading their cargoes of fruit. He looked into the dark waters and took a deep breath. No, this was not a sin that could be erased. He heaved a sigh and determined to amend his ways. Never again would he sign his ballot "Carl Smith."
42 lesson9 More About the Guitar The guitar is one of the oldest instruments known to man. It probably originated in the vicinity of China. There were guitars in ancient Egypt and Greece as well, but the written history of the guitar starts in Spain in the 13th century. By 1500 the guitar was popular in Italy, France, and Spain. A French document of that time concludes that many people were playing the guitar. Stradivarius, the undeniable king of violin makers, could not resist creating a variety* of guitars. Also, there was no lack of music written for the instrument. Haydn, Schubert, and others wrote guitar music. When the great Beethoven was asked to compose music for the guitar, he went into a rage and refused, but eventually even Beethoven could not ignore the challenge; legend tells us he finally called the guitar a miniature orchestra. Indeed the guitar does sound like a little orchestra! Perhaps that is why in rural* areas around the world the guitar has been a source of music for millions to enjoy.